Crockford of Pacific Identifications Inc examined identifiable
faunal remains. Sixty-five
elements were identifiable to class, family or species (Table
3). Ms. Crockford
made the following observations:
if not all of the small ungulate is probably deer, and most
of the really identifiable bits appear to be white-tailed
rather than mule deer.Most of the large ungulate appeared
to be elk, although a bit of what could be cow or bison was
identified.A few bits of dog were recovered, some of it as
small as the smallest prehistoric dogs I have seen for BC
(see Crockford 1997), and some as large as the common "village
dog". None were coyote or wolf.
fish bones were all identified as sucker, quite large ones
(ca. 40-45 cm, as compared to those of known length in the
U. Vic. collection).
One otolith of a large burbot (much larger than ca.
30 cm fish in the U. Vic. collection) was recovered from one
of the lower levels.The salmon all appear to be large Chinooks.(Letter
Report of September 20, 1999).
Level 1 (0-5 cm), one phalanx and one main metacarpal were
deer (Odocoileus sp.), one proximal phalanx was elk (Cervus
elephus), one mandible ramus was from a large ungulate, and
two elements were from a sucker (Catostomus sp.).
Level 2 (5-10 cm), came a medial phalanx (White-tailed deer,
Odocoileus virginiana), a femur, metapodial, carpal #3, intermediate
carpal, and radial carpal (deer, Odocoileus sp.), a main metatarsal,
a proximal phalanx, an unidentifiable phalanx and a sesamoid
(large ungulate), otolith (Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha),
and an unidentifiable vertebra and unidentified fragments
of an undetermined large land mammal.
Level 3 (10-15 cm) were recovered 3 otoliths (Chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), four teeth (White-tailed deer,
Odocoileus virginiana), a proximal phalanx (Beaver, Castor
canadensis), and a long bone shaft of an undetermined large
Level 4 (15-20) were recovered a tibia and a tooth (Deer sp.,
Odocoileus sp.), 2 teeth and other bone fragments from a very
Level 5 (20-25) were recovered 3 otoliths (Chinook salmon,
Level 6 (25-30) were recovered 1 otolith (Chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and a metapodial (Deer, Odocoileus
Level 7 (30-35) were recovered 1 otolith (Burbot, Lota lota),
and a scapula blade from a large ungulate.
Level 8 (35-40) came 2 teeth from a very large ungulate.
bones in the surface collection included a humerus, main metacarpal.
a scapula (White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginiana); a radius
and a main metatarsal (deer, Odocoileus sp.); a femur, central
tarsal, and 3 teeth (Elk, Cervus elephus); a thoracic vertebra
and main metatarsal (Cow/Bison, Bos/Bison); a medial accessory
phalanx (Black bear, Ursus americanus);
an innominate/pelvis, mandible, radius, and ulna (Dog,
Canis familiaris); an Operculum and a Preoperculum (Sucker,
Catostomus sp.); and a long bone shaft of an undetermined
large land mammal.
most common faunal remains from the Salmon Beds appear to
be Chinook Salmon (Levels 2, 3, 5 and 6), and deer (Levels
1, 2, 3, 4, 6). Other
ungulates were being exploited as well, especially elk and
possibly bison. Other
fish in the sample include Burbot and Sucker.
A small amount of beaver and bear is also present at
the site. All
of the dog bones are complete and were not likely to have
bone by element and species.